Author Archives: Anthea

About Anthea

At present mainly engaged with Gloucestershire Archives in leading the transcription of the material compiled for the Lloyd George survey of land values for 1909. Many volunteers involved, more welcome! Previously writer of some local history books: Tewkesbury, the Cotswolds, A thousand years of the Engiish Parish, Cheltenham A new history.

The delights of the Field Books

Several of our Lloyd George volunteers are transcribing entries in the Field Books which are in the National Archives (TNA/IR 58). Every session on the documents, whether Field Books or sources held by Gloucestershire Archives, throws up interesting points. Often at the same time an entry sets us a puzzle in interpretation. Maureen Anderson has come across what she found a rather puzzling description of a property (hereditament 675) called The Knoll in Amerberley, recorded in the Field Book (TNA/IR 58/21298). The house was owned by Mrs E S Dauncey and occupied by Percy C Newman. Here is the description:

Rough cast over brick & red tiled modern residence built on Daily Mail £500 prize plan;
GF Drawing room with dining recess, hall, lavatory, kitchen & scullery combined, pantry;
1st F 4 bedrooms, bathroom & WC (fitted lavatory basins);
Coal house, garden, wood shed, potting shed, drive entrance, gas, s[pring] water

The property was inspected on the 16th April 1915, and was valued at £660; the ground area was 1 ¼ acres.

So it cost £500 to build, and had increased in value by 1909 (the date relevant to the valuation) – but what was the prize plan? The answer is probably the Daily Mail’s Ideal Home Exhibition. The London Museum website (http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/Collections-Research/Research/Your-Research/X20L/Themes/1387/1148/) suggests that the Daily Mail started the exhibition in 1908 to boost newspaper sales and advertising revenue; it was held at Olympia. ‘There were various demonstrations and associated contests, including the Arts and Crafts competition and the architects’ competition to design the ‘Ideal Home’’.

The Knoll may have been entered for the competition rather than actually winning prize money. Does the house still exist and if so can we have a photograph of it please? Has it been altered?

Strontia works in 1909 and after

Two entries in the Lloyd George 1910 land survey ‘Domesday Book’ for Cromhall [D2428/1/25], transcribed by Mike Beacham, refer to ‘Strontia Works’ [Nos 198-199], valued at twenty-five and twelve pounds per annum respectively. He was surprised and followed them up, sending us some more information.

One entry in the book for Dodington [D2428/1/59] refers to a ‘Strontia Quarry’ [No 143], valued at twenty-five pounds, with another ‘Works’ at Raysfield Farm [No 27] valued at five pounds ten shillings. Being shamefully ignorant of what strontia was or is, a bit of on-line searching, including the Archives’ on-line catalogue, and a fruitful consultation with Anthea brought resolution of a sort. Strontium sulphate, or celestine, is a crystalline compound of strontium found in shallow beds usually not far below the surface, which were ‘mined’ in the opencast manner, with the disturbed grounds back-filled once the celestine, known locally as ‘spar’, had been extracted.

From the late eighteen eighties until World War II the greater part of the world’s requirements for celestine were provided by opencast works in and around Yate in south Gloucestershire, and all hand-dug. Kelly’s 1914 Directory estimated annual exports of 12000 tons – and that’s a lot of shovelling! Although the mineral is found in various countries around the globe – Germany and the USA, for instance – the Yate area workings contained the purest spar, and as such, was highly prized.

The ‘Domesday Book’ for Yate itself [D2428/1/86] shows at least four sites being worked, three of which are valued much higher than the foregoing examples. The ‘Spar quarry’ at Godwins Farm [No 65] and the one at Goose Green Farm [No 290] were both valued at three hundred pounds; spar at a Yate Rocks property [No 332] was worth one hundred, while R.N.Hooper’s quarry at Stanshawes [No 208] was only worth twenty.

The mineral had several uses: it formed part of a German process to make sugar from sugar beet; it burned with a bright red flame and was ideal for making fireworks; as the war approached, again because of its red colour when heated, it was used in the manufacture of ‘tracer’ bullets; and also in incendiary bombs.

After the war, mechanical diggers were used to increase production, but the beds were becoming worked out, and new manufacturing processes could utilise low grade material which was plentiful elsewhere. Stiff competition saw exports more than halved after the end of the war, and although the mining continued for forty years or more, the ‘glory days’ were long gone.

Lower Swell Park

Abbotswood gardens in Lower Swell are amongst the best known in Gloucestershire. The medieval park, on the other hand, which helped to shape the development of the Abbotswood estate and gardens, and provided its name, is not well known. The Park’s clearly defined boundaries have remained distinct, but the name of the park was effectively superceded by Abbotswood in the later nineteenth century. The park has nonetheless remained a distinct feature in the landscape, much of it still with the appearance of parkland.

There has been a flurry of interest in historic and modern parks, partly because the pressure to find land for building threatens their survival. As well as the national register of parks and gardens, we have the Gloucestershire Gardens and Landscape Trust. On the first Thursday in the month you may have noticed the researchers in the Archives Office delving into records that illuminate the development of parks and gardens. Each volunteer takes a site. My interest has become medieval parks, of which there were many but few have been researched.

There is a nice collection of material in the Archives relating to Lower Swell park, which in 1659 was bought by Sir Robert Atkyns, and was inherited by his son, another Sir Robert, author of The Ancient and Present state of Glostershire, published in 1712. This volume is particularly interesting to the GGLT researchers because a large number of full page engravings of great houses in the county were included, commissioned from the Dutchman Johannes Kyp. They are birds eye views, despite no helicopters or balloons to aid the artist, and they show the surroundings as well as the buildings. Naturally there is one of Sir Robert Atkyns’ house at Lower Swell, known as The Bowl or The Boulde. It is fascinating to compare the detail in the engraving with what is known of the park about a century later.

The park covered 250 acres, and stretched from the Fosse Way at Stow to the road linking Lower Swell with Upper Swell, and was bounded north and south by two more roads, so defining it quite unmistakeably. The new house called Abbotswood was built on a part of the park; ‘Abbots Wood’ was an alternative name for the park because it had once belonged to Hayles Abbey.

Volunteer researchers and GGLT members are warmly welcomed! For details please see GGLT website.

A windmill in Almondsbury

Excitement – one property surveyed in 1909 for the Lloyd George survey of land values (Gloucestershire Archives D2428/1/3) was described as a windmill, and this was the first time that we had come across one – mills, yes, flour mills, yes, but no windmills. Of course, by 1909 the contribution of windmills to the nation’s flour supply, produced by means of this early medieval technology, however up-dated with new pieces of equipment it might have been, was very tiny, if any at all. Large steam-powered flour mills had displaced both wind and water mills.

One of the volunteers transcribing the 1909 data, M J A Beacham, is also author of Mills and Milliing in Gloucestershire (Tempus, Stroud, 2005). Could he tell us something about the Almondsbury windmill? After some searching and to and fro-ing in email communication, it turns out that all was not as it seemed.

The owners in 1909 of the property described as ‘windmill’ were the trustees of Almondsbury Memorial Trust, and there was a note that formerly it had been part of Woodhouse Farm. Recourse to the Ordnance Survey map revealed a windpump on Woodhouse Farm at this date. Would this have been called a ‘windmill’? Researchers were sceptical. The history of windpumps on farms, which were once quite numerous, is yet to be written, Mike comments.

A real windmill may have existed on Almondsbury Hill from the mid-seventeenth century. There was certainly one marked on Isaac Taylor’s map of Gloucestershire dated 1777; windmills provided very helpful landmarks to travellers. Two years before Taylor’s map, a lease of a windmill in Almondsbury (GA D674/a/E29), shows it to have been part of the Knowle estate of William Bromley Chester; Col. Chester-Master owned Woodhouse Farm in 1909, suggesting this was tbe the windmill we were looking for. It was marked on the OS 1830 map (surveyed perhaps twelve years earlier) as circular in plan, and may have been a tower mill of brick or stone, with the latter more likely. By 1843 only ‘Windmill field’ was marked on the tithe map. The windmill probably ceased work at about the same time as the one in Falfield a few miles to the north.

The Almondsbury Memorial Trustees still own Windmill field, but in 1909 it was only the memory of a windmill. The search has been interesting, and our thanks to Mike who has contributed substantially to this account.

An Indian tea planter in Charlton Kings

Looking through the Charlton Kings 1909 survey material the other day, I was intrigued by the name of a house in Sandy Lane – ‘Multrapore’. Searching on the ever helpful Google reveals that Multrapore is an Indian tea plantation still in operation and involved in some legal disputes of which the details are not available to the ordinary googler. The other reference which Google produced was to glos1909survey, and clicking on it brought one to the complete Charlton Kings data on the website! The Gloucestershire Archives file is classified at D2428/2/38.

In 1909 Multrapore was owned and occupied by Montague Douglas (or Donald) Seaton. The house occupied a quarter acre plot, valued at £120. The house was valued at £1050, clearly a substantial building when it is compared with the many houses and cottages valued at less than £100.

One Montagu Donald Seaton was a pupil at Christ’s Hospital Schook, Hertford, in 1881, and was aged 11. He had been born in Lichfield. Was this our man?

The Guild of Craftsmen – gentlemen and players

Some members of the Guild of Handicrafts were gentlemen, and some players. This is the conclusion which seems to emerge from the Gloucestershire records of the 1909 Lloyd George survey of land values. Volunteers transcribing the records have recently finished Broad Campden and Chipping Campden, and the information below is drawn from this source – Gloucestershire Archives D2428/2/43.

C R Ashbee himself had the resources of a wealthy family behind him when he embarked on the craft experiment. His and his wife’s property in Campden was valued at £3150, and the Guild’s property at another £2660. The house and Craftsmen’s Club was rented from E P Jones Esq. Another gentleman craftsman was Paul Woodroffe, who was living in Westington in 1909. He has been described as a beaky, austere Roman Catholic, and was a glass artist. He owned his valuable house with ½ acre of garden, worth £700, a large amount for a single house at this period, and when also there were few owner occupiers.

Frederick Griggs, illustrator, was less well founded. He was commissioned by Macmillan to illustrate Highways and Byways in Hertfordshire. He fell in love with Campden when he visited in 1903 to prepare drawings for Highways and Byways in Oxford and the Cotswolds (published in 1905). The following year he lodged at the guild hostel, before renting Dover’s House in High Street, where he was in 1909 and indeed until 1930, when he impoverished himself building Dover’s Court. Dover’s House was owned by Henry J Hands. Hands also owned the house in Back Lane occupied in 1909 by Alec Miller, carver and sculptor.

The romantic-sounding Wentworth Huyshe lived at Box Hedge Cottage in Westington, one of the Earl of Gainsborough’s many properties in Campden. So too did Bill Thornton, in a cottage in High Street. Huyshe was a journalist, collector of arms and armour, heraldic artist, and medievalist generally; Thornton was an ornamental iron worker; his business partner, Charley Downer, is not named in 1909, but he purchased a modest house in Park Road, Campden, in 1912, as information added to form 37 after the date of the survey records.

Of course there were other Guildsmen, and supporters of the Campden Guild of Handicraft Trust will be able to add much more.

The pleasure of finding familiar names

People get pleasure from finding a familiar name – or indeed a different kind of item, such as a type of building or any other feature being collected. Recently the volunteer team has been working on the Chipping Campden 1909 survey material (form 37s in Gloucestershire Archives, see D2428/2/43) and had this spark of pleasure when we spotted the well-known name of Ashbee.

Several interesting facts emerged from the data about the group of handicaft workers who arrived in Campden in 1902. C R Ashbee is named as the owner of three properties and his wife of one: notable was Woolstapler’s Hall, where he and his wife Janet moved originally, and ‘house including ancient building (formerly chapel) cottage & land’ at Broad Campden now known as the Norman Chapel. However, he does not appear anywhere as an occupier. Woolstapler’s Hall was occupied by someone surnamed Walford, and it was owned by Janet Ashbee; she gave her address as the Norman Chapel. The Norman Chapel at Broad Campden was occupied by A K Coomaraswamy; the clerk in the Inland Revenue Office who recorded this information first entered the owner’s name as Dr Coomaraswamy, crossed it out and put Rt Hon the Earl of Gainsborough, and finally settled on C R Ashbee.

Ashbee also owned 3 cottages in Broad Campden, occupied by Mrs Horwood and others, and 3 houses and land occupied by Miss Harewood and others. These were probably occupied by workmen in the Guild of Handicrafts, and the ladies called Horwood or Harewood were supervisors, as it were. The Guild of Handicrafts was stated to own a house, 2 cottages, buildings & land at Broad Campden; Mr C R Ashbee was a trustee and acted for his co-trustees, giving his address as 37 Cheyne Walk, London SW. The Craftsmen’s Club and a house, in High Street, were also owned by the Guild and the occupier of the house was Mr Blanco White. This was probably Braithwaite House, the ‘hotel’ used by the Ashbees when they were living at Woolstapler’s Hall.

Other Guildsmen are named in the survey, and they will be the subject of another post.

Maps

Maps are a wonderful historical resource, as anyone who researches a place or a property appreciates. Having just finished writing about Prestbury Park, better known as Cheltenham race course, for the Gloucestershire Gardens & Landscape Trust, this was in my mind. The park is nearly 900 years old. Of course, there are no maps to show us its boundaries at that date, though we do know where the bishop’s Prestbury manor house was situated; parts of the moats which inclosed the house and its suporting buildings, gatehouse and so on, still exist and the site was excavated by Helen E. O’Neil in 1951 (see Transactions of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological Society vol 75).

A survey of the estate in 1623 (Glos. Arch. D184/M24) states that the park was 291 acres. In 1762 the Rt Hon William Craven added the manor house site to his Prestbury Park estate which had been separated from it in the early seventeenth century. Following this, he commissioned a survey of his Gloucestershire estates in Pamington [Ashchurch], Gotherington, Great Washbourne, Elkstone, Pirton and Elmbridge [Churchdown], Prestbury, Twyning, Withybridge [Boddington] and Tredington. The surveys were bound into a beautiful volume, each block of land accompanied by a map (Glos Arch. D184/P1). The Prestbury Park map is dated 1768. The accompanying survey suggests that the park was 299 acres, and the map shows a very distinctive oval boundary which also extended up to the old Prestbury manor house. Much of the boundary still exists, as Beryl Elliott has shown in her article in Cheltenham Local History Society Journal vol 16.

A lucky find on Westcote Hill

No, not a golden idol or even an Anglo-Saxon ornament! But an interesting find, nonetheless. Today the last set of form 37s for the Lloyd George survey were transcribed, for the parish of Westcote (Glos. Arch. D2428/2/171). Far Westcote, Nether Westcote and Church Westcote are named. Nineteen forms at the end were for ‘allotment land’ on Westcote Hill. Seven plots measured 27 perches, one was 24, one 22, two 21, one 17, one 16, two 14, three 8 and one only 3 perches. So they were rather various in size. All were occupied by their owners, and all had different owners,  though there were obviously several members of the same families owning strips.

‘Strips’ is the clue to the origin of these allotments on Westcote Hill. They are survivals of the ancient open-field holdings of medieval farmers. It appears that part of Westcote Hill had been enclosed in 1842, but not all. The strips were said to be farmed in the traditional way in 1905. There had been a demand for small holdings in the parish in 1895, and it may be that these strips were allocated as allotments in response to the agricultural depression being suffered at that time. The Victoria County History volume 6 page 176 (www.victoriacountyhistory.ac.uk/counties/gloucestershire/publications) notes  that they were called ‘allotments’ on the Ordnance survey map of 1922. We know they were called that in 1909.

A few years ago the strips could still be seen running up the hill and separated by grass balks or banks. The separate ownership of the strips ensured that they survived for many years. Can any still be seen?

 

 

The Lloyd George survey of land values

Thanks to many volunteers, a mass of material on property values, owners and occupiers for the whole county is being transcribed and loaded onto a website: glos1909survey.org.uk

Numerous points of interest arise at every session in the Archives Office.

Particularly needed are volunteers to visit The National Archives and photograph the Field Books for parts of the county around Stroud which are missing from the Gloucestershire Archives collection. If anyone thought of doing some photography, please contact either John Loosley (see post on turkish bath) or Anthea, writing here, in order not to duplicate work already done.